1.     This is a graph of historical CO2 concentrations measured from ice core data taken from the Law Dome, Antarctica for the years 1750-2006 and also includes more contemporary data. 


We find this foundational data credible, because it cross-checks with direct atmospheric CO2 measurements by NOAA at the Mauna Loa observatory, Hawaii. In 1960 the ice core CO2 measurement was around 320 ppm and the direct atmospheric measurement was around 317 ppm. The Mauna Loa observatory is located at an altitude of 13,679 feet midst lava fields that contain no plants.

C. MacFarling Meure; “Law Dome CO2, CH4 and N20 ice core records…”; Geophysical Research Letters; Vol. 33; L14810

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration;


2.     Ian Morris; “Why the West Rules, for Now”; Farrar, Straus and Giroux; New York; 2010; p. 497.


3.     OECD/IEA Statistics, 2015.


4.     Princeton University; Department of Geosciences; “Why does CO2 affect climate?”


5.     David Wallace Wells; “The Uninhabitable Earth”; Crown Publishing Group; New York; 2019; pp. 21-22.

Climate cascades are sets of reactions from Mother Nature. “A warming planet leads to melting Arctic ice, which means less sunlight reflected back to the sun and more absorbed by a planet warming faster still, which means an ocean less able to absorb atmospheric carbon and so a planet warming faster still. A warming planet will also melt Arctic permafrost, which contains 1.8 trillion tons of carbon, more than twice as much as is currently suspended in the earth’s atmosphere…” We think there is a problem.

6.     Ibid; p.p. 40- 41. Also NYT 10/17/18; “Why Half a Degree of Global Warming is a Big Deal”. This article summarizes the IPCC Special Report, “Global Warming of 1.5C.


7.     Ibid; p. 107.


8.     Ibid; p. 65.


9.     Ibid; p. 117.