1.     Robert Nozick; “The Nature of Rationality”; Princeton University Press; Princeton, New Jersey; 1993; p. 64.


2.     James Madison; “The Federalist Papers”; Random House, Inc.; New York, N.Y.; 1982 (ed.); p. 319.


3.     Sheri Berman; Foreign Affairs Nov/Dec 2016; “Populism is Not Fascism But It Could Be a Harbinger”;  p.p. 39, 44.


In an 11/22/17 NYT article, columnist Ross Douthat writes, “…all the high-level agita surrounding (Angela Merkel’s) political crisis…suggests a basic deficiency of elite imagination that will be one of the things that brings down the liberal order if it does eventually fall….What will save the liberal order, if it is to be saved, will be the successful integration of concerns that its leaders have dismissed or ignored back into normal political debate, an end to…‘no-choice’ politics…”


U.S. conservatives have their static ideology; liberals have their pcs. The fact that living organisms require dynamic internal balance also applies to societies. Maybe someday a politically talented candidate will better articulate the concept, “Get Real,” in order to solve real systems problems – that are increasing in effect: like climate change, inequality and the U.S. merchandise trade deficit, which needs a wider solution than a bilateral deal.


4.     Jonathan Sperber; “The European Revolutions, 1848-1851”; Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, England; 1994; p. 86.


5.     Ibid. p. 109.


6.     Ibid. p. 134.

            6a. Ibid. p. 134.

7.     Hannah Arendt; “The Origins of Totalitarianism”; Houghton Mifflin; New York, N.Y.; 1968; p. 387.


8.     Simon Schama; “Citizens”; Alfred A. Knopf; New York, N.Y.; 1989; p. 371.


9.     The theory that tax cuts, redistributing existing wealth upwards, will benefit everyone by incenting additional economic growth is fallacious. Given uncertainty, business decisions are made pretax, considering the asset. This is what matters most.


Business investment decisions are mostly made considering the fundamentals: likely customer markets, labor costs and the actions of government. An 11/24/17 New York Times article notes, “At a Wall Street Journal conference, (Administration economic advisor) Gary Cohn asked his audience of chief executives how many of them would invest more if the tax cut were passed. When only a few attendees raised their hands, Mr. Cohen asked: ‘Why aren’t other hands up?’” The 11/17 proposed tax cuts will mainly preserve present wealth, not generate future wealth.*


This 11/25/17 NYT editorial on the pending tax cut says that voters are being asked to trade a few expiring tax cuts now in return for more than a trillion dollars in additional federal debt in the future, over ten years.


* The U.S. requires real innovation, both economic and institutional, to meet the challenges of the 21st century.


10.  William Pfaff; “The Wrath of Nations”; Simon and Schuster; New York, N.Y.; 1993; p. 238.