(especially footnote #10)



1.     Isaiah Berlin; “The Sense of Reality”; Farrar, Strauss and Giroux; New York, N.Y.; 1996;  p. 121. A really excellent book, dealing with practicalities and morals.


2.     Ibid., p. 254.


3.    To restate the authors’ dynamic concept of democracies another way, in traditional societies roles are fixed. In medieval Europe, India and China, the typical order of society was simple: the rulers (who also possessed the maximum amount of virtue), the soldiers who protected the rulers and the workers who simply worked. Modern societies, in contrast, are process oriented, with just outcomes dependent upon correct procedure. Protected by individual rights and by the recognition of common facts, people in such market societies are expected not to abandon their judgments.


4.    Book of Job 41:25-27 and 33


5.     Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson; “The Narrow Corridor”; Penguin Press; New York, N.Y.; 2019; p. 8.


6.     Ibid., p. 61.


7.     Ibid., p. 281.


8.     Ibid., p. 281


9.     Ibid., p. 281


10.  Ibid., p. 160.


Historian Dan Jones describes in detail what happened when the Roman legions were withdrawn in A.D. 407 to defend the Gaul and the Rhine frontiers from incursions. “Britain (was) the last of the major Roman provinces to have been conquered and the first to be lost….From the early fifth century Britain was steadily settled by war bands and migrant groups from the North Sea fringe. There was no single, coordinated military invasions such as the Romans had landed in the time of Claudius or that the Normans would stage in 1066; the invasions were piecemeal and staggered over many years. Some of the names later applied to the peoples who arrived (and conflicted with the native Britons) included the Saxons, Angles, Jutes (and later the Vikings). But ethnic terminology would have mattered much less to fifth-century Britons than observed reality. Roman functionaries and soldiers had disappeared across the sea in one direction, while Germanic settlers bringing new languages, cultures, and beliefs arrived from another. (Jones, 2021, p.p. 53-54)” It was a very turbulent time. In general, history tells us what people had to deal with, and what can be gained and lost.


The British Museum exhibits chronicle these events. The first is the contents of a treasure chest from Roman Britain. The second is the burial helmet of an Anglo-Saxon king. The third is a prow of a fearsome dragon-headed Viking ship.


11.  Ibid., p. 170.


12.  Ibid., p. 171.


13.  Ibid., p. 174.


14.  Ibid., p. 175


15.  James Madison; “The Federalist Papers 51”; Bantam Books (ed.); New York, N.Y.; 2003; p. 319.


16.  Hans Kohn; “The Idea of Nationalism”; The Macmillan Company; New York, N.Y; 1960; p. 561.


17.  Acemoglu and Robinson, p. 288.


18.  Ibid., p.p. 282-284.


19.  Ibid., p. 401.


     19a. Ibid., p.p. 425-426.


      20. Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center:


21. CNN, 10/31/20.


22. Rana Foroohar, “Homecoming”; Crown; New York, N.Y.; 2022; p. 151.


23. Ibid., p. 196.


24. Ibid., p. 198.