1. Plato, “The Republic, Desmond Lee ed.”; Penguin Books; London, England; 1987; p. 260.


2. Hannah Arendt; “Between Past and Future”; Penguin Books; New York, N.Y.; 2006; p. 258.


3. Danielle Allen; “Why Plato Wrote”; John Wiley & Sons Ltd.; West Sussex, England; 2013; p. 140.


4. Plato, p. 256.


5. Rene Descartes; “Discourse on Method and Meditations”; Macmillan Publishing Company; New York, N.Y.; 1960; p. 15.


6. Ibid.; p. 24.


7. Alan Lightman; “Searching for Stars on an Island in Maine”; Vintage Books; New York, N.Y.; 2018; p.p. 146-147.


8. Leonard Sussman; “Quantum Mechanics, the Theoretical Minimum”; Basic Books; New York, N.Y.; 2014; p.6, p.8.

    Easy for him.


8a Ibid., p.6.


9. Value investing is an investment discipline. Its financial principle is, “Never pay retail.” Value investors prefer non-cyclical companies with moats around their franchises. A serious investor in individual stocks should know, or learn, what investment style fits their temperament.


10.  Lightman, p. 97.


11. Karl Marx; “The Communist Manifesto, Pozner ed.”; Bantam; New York, N.Y.; 1992; p. 17.


12. Lightman, p. 157.


13. Adam Smith, “The Essential Adam Smith, Robert Heilbroner ed.”; W.W. Norton & Company; New York, N.Y.; 1986; p. 151.


14. Ibid.; p. 169.


15 Ibid.; p. 62.


16. Ibid.; p.p. 65-66.


16a. Johns Hopkins University; “Coronavirus Resource Center”; Deaths per 100,000 population.


17. Hannah Arendt; “The Origins of Totalitarianism”; Houghton Mifflin Harcourt; New York, N.Y.; 1976; p. 364.


18. Ibid.; p. 384.


19. Ibid.; p. 385.


20. Ibid.; p. 387.


21. Ibid.; p. 430.


22. Edmund Burke; “Reflections on the Revolution in France, J. Popcock ed.;” Hackett Publishing Company; Indianapolis IN; 1987; p. 119.


22a According to Geoffrey Hinton (recipient of the 2018 Turing Award for his work on A.I., recently at Google and a graduate of the University of Cambridge) A.I. will fast become more intelligent than humans due to the network of thousands of computers that can learn instantaneously. The best way to get A.I. to work for human purposes is by designing in principles, rather than confusing and contradictory guidelines. In other words, these systems have to be brought up well.


23. Financial Times; 5/26/23; “Britain is not America”.