1.     Robert Heilbroner; “The Essential Adam Smith”; W.W. Norton & Company; New York, NY; 1986; p. 169.


2.     Ibid, p. 65.


3.     Ibid, p. 66.


4.     Ibid, p. 152.


5.     Karl Marx; “The Communist Manifesto”; ed. Vladimir Pozner; Bantam; New York, NY; 1992; p. 15.


6.     Republican senator Jeff Flake writes:


“Who could blame the people who felt abandoned and ignored by the major parties for reaching in despair for a candidate who offered oversimplified answers to infinitely complex questions and managed to entertain them in the process…” *


The Democratic party is a traditional US “big tent” party, staked left-of-center, where many interests and viewpoints are heard and then aggregated. This the advantage of diversity, to solve complex problems. Madison wrote in Federalist No. 51, “In the extended republic of the United States, and among the great variety of interests, parties and sects which it embraces, a coalition of a majority of the whole society (here read “party”) could seldom take place on any other principles than of those of justice and the general good…”


In contrast the Republican party, having expelled the RINOS (Republicans in Name Only), is now the party of Donald Trump that has evolved into only a mechanism for holding and trying to exercise power. Exaggerating somewhat, it has evolved into Hannah Arendt’s totalitarian onion **, consisting of a leader at the chaotic center, a layer of enablers scared for their political careers and an outer layer of true believers (the base). America needs a traditional right-of-center party.


The Republican party is now supported by many who are in social distress and heeding only their emotions. The 2/1/19 NYT writes:


“The two great literary bookends of President Trump’s half-term of grift and chaos have come from survivors of the most broken white communities that helped put him in office,


“How J.D. Vance, the author of ‘Hillbilly Elegy,’ and Tara Westover, who wrote ‘Educated,’ escaped physical and psychological horror is the dose of Charles Dickens that makes these two memoirs so memorable.”


Vance was raised in a declining steel town in southwest Ohio. He is now a venture capitalist. Westover came from a clan of survivalist end-timers in rural Idaho. She now has a doctorate from the University of Cambridge. Both were saved by institutions, Vance by the marines and Westover by the educational system. This is why the institutions of society matter.”



* Robert Reich; “The Common Good”; Vintage Books; New York, NY; 2018; p. 107.

 ** Hannah Arendt; “The Origins of Totalitarianism”; A Harvest Book; New York, NY; 1968 (ed.); p. 430.


7.     Tyler Cowan; “The Average is Over”; Penguin Group; New York, NY; 2013; p.p. 254, 258.

The author envisions a bifurcated but status quo society. But just as commercial entrepreneurship results in economic change, political entrepreneurship makes history, for better or worse.